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Family history of the families Sardemann - Sardeman

 (since 1634)

written by Adolf Sardemann (Cologne) and Dr. Emil Sardemann (Kassel)

Sorry, translation is not ready and has bad mistakes!

 

Overview:

A.  The 3 Sardemann - Lines

  1. The rural branch
  2. The Wesel branch
  3. The Amsterdam branch

 

B.  History and Genealogy

  1. Clevische Mark  -  Stammland der Sardemann’s
  2. Das Heimatdorf Bühl an der Lippe
  3. Der Sardemann-Hof
  4. Der Name Sardemann
  5. Erste Urkunde mit Namen “Sardemann” 1634
  6. Die Zeit nach dem 30-jährigen Krieg
  7. Die Gerichtsbarkeit
  8. Johann Sardemann als Schöffe
  9. Der Namenswechsel Horstmann --> Sardemann
  10. Die Familie Horstmann
  11. Der Horstmannshof und der Horstmannskamp
  12. Die Familien Benninghoff - Sardemann - Horstmann
  13. Das Leben auf dem Sardemann-Hof bis nach dem 7-jährigen Krieg

 

A. The 3 SARDEMANN lines:

 

Albert Wilhelm Sardemann/Horstmann died on October 1st in the year 1770 at the age of 72 years. Only the oldest son Albert Georg remained of his 3 sons. The two others Johann Wilhelm and Gerhard had turned to not rural professions and left the Sardemann-Hof already several years before the death of their father. Some years after the death of her husband the widow Sybilla enlarges her possession. She buys the already mentioned farm "Doppenkamp", lain at the “Sonderberg” in Bühl on January 24th, 1777, at which her husband was entitled to inherit. Her brother-in-law Hermann Horstmann died in February 1777. In the same year on March 5th the widow Sybilla paid his heirs out and the "new Horstmanskamp", changed into her property.

Of the three manors which had to manage the Sardemanns now Albert Georg has the Sardemannshof and the Horstmannskamp left in the possession of the son. Sybilla’s only daughter Margarethe who was married to the farmer Heinrich Kuhlemann, leases the Doppenkamp.

Sybilla Sardemann dies on December 31, 1783. In the inheriting discussion of January 6th 1785 the married couple Margarethe Sardemann and Heinrich Kuhlemann acquires the Doppenkamp for 200 Reichsthaler, while her son Albert Georg is having the Sardemannshof and the Horstmannskamp left in the rural line.

 

 

1. The rural branch (farmers branch)

Albert Georg Sardemann married Anna Elsken Jordemann to 1-11-1771. Of 1770 -- 1777 he is Bauermeister and of 1772 -- 1775 Gildemeister in Bühl (archive Gartrop). He and the schoolteacher Stöcker from Gartrop as a curator unite sales contract (archive Düsseldorf) sign 1780. In this contract of 11-22-1780 the estates of a Jan de Werth are also mentioned (probably identical with the rider general of the 30-Year-War).

Albert Georg dies of still very young on 5-23-1783 and leaves two sons, Friedrich and Albert Georg. After a land register entry of 1-23-1754 this one "new Horstmannskamp" was liable for her paternal inheritance. The 21 years younger widow marries a Gerhard Overbeck very soon again who also is called Sardemann in later files. The married couple Overbeck/Sardemann and the two sons being under guardianship of first marriage then acquire this one "new Horstmannskamp" upon 325 Rthlr for 1-6-1785 together for the sum in the inheriting discussion in front. They entered the lease of the Sardemannshofes Ausserdem.

From interest the value relationship of the Thalers also is to the goods in the time then. The spending power of the Thalers amounted at 1785:

15 pounds meat of the best quality or

25 pounds of bread

2 pounds of tobacco

4 pounds of tea

2 bottles of champagne

1 pair of shoes.

The oldest of the two sons posthumously published, Friedrich, then has taken the Sardemannshof later. The manor the 1867 was the victim of a fire and then was parceled out, Margarethe was in the possession of the descendants of his only subsidiary till there, this one. stout man of the Dickmanshof was married to a Heinrich Friedrich in Bühl.

The younger son, Albert Georg, married an Anna Gertrud Benninghoff (second one marriage of a Sardemann on the Benninghof) on 5-28-1805. These both are the grandson of the tribe mother Sybilla Sardemann and a great-granddaughter of her brother Gerhard Sardemann to which late Benninghoff mentioned itself after his one marriage on the Benninghof in 1723.

The unique case can be recorded here that the bloodstreams of the name gone down in the male tribe join together with that one of the name continued in the female tribe again. Albert Georg Sardemann then has entered later the inheritance lease agreement of the Benninghofes which is in the possession of his descendants to this day.

In the 14th century, this Benninghof was the noble seat of a line of the sirs of the mountain (de Monte) in Hünxe which had her castle at the great ring embankment. 1341 was a son of these masters Besitzer of the manor and called itself Henricus de Bennickhoven, married to Sophia Spellen. 1353 Heynicken Van Bennynehaven. 1487 was this good a clevisches fief (archive Gartrop).

 

2. The Wesel-branch (City of Wesel):

Johann Wilhelm Sardemann had left his native village Bühl already in young years and set up in this for some hours of remote Wesel where he gets married at the age of 29 years.

The rural population could only slowly recover from the burdens of the wars. It have to be learned from the church invoices of the church game Hünxe from the year 1768 that because of the war several manors belonging to the church stand singly and don't find any tenants, that other tenants are responsible strongly and the "remains" cannot be collected.

It may have to look for a lighter bread in the town been enticing for some this as the heavy lot to take on himself for country dweller there. They were adding, the beer brewing and schnapps distilling in time then barley and hop on many manors. It himself therefore seemed reasonable and shows his business spirit that Johann Wilhelm in Wesel as a brandy burner niederliess. He lived in the basket maker marked-out route and married an Anna Maria Christina Schmids there to 9-30-1764. Wesel was a preussische fortress formerly. The äussere life was narrowly, cut by small conditions and in comparison with later definitely almost modest.

The outbreak of the French revolution in year 1789 brings warlike complications for Germany again, too. In fall of the year 1792 the French revolution army conquers Belgium and exceeds the Rhine. They took the notorious Assignate, a treasury bond of the French state, to circulation at that time, too. To this the following satirical verse arose around the face vault of the 18th century:

"I was once of rags rags lived and some became a rogue through me, made, brought by rags to the Rhine, of rags."

In December 1797, the war then ended with the assignment of a part of the left bank of the Rhine to France to which the emperor had given his consent in Vienna. The complete bank of the Rhine should form the east limit of France the of the Swiss limit up to nice at Andernach. Furthermore the complete Eifel and all country also should be annexed by Roer and Maas to the French state dressing on the left to to Venlo by the contract of Campo Formio. Almost the whole left bank of the Rhine was therefore lost with the exception of the preussischen areas of Cleve, Geldern and Moers. On the other side of the Rhine the sacred Roman empire of German nation, Franz II the old empire broke down in the meantime and the last for Kaiser ., laid crown and emperorship down.

After the almost uninterrupted chaos of war of the years 1795 -- 1805, at first there was a time of considerable need. Johann Wilhelm who probably has still run a tavern next to his brandy distillery is but be awkward or perhaps also through the warlike time which brought many thirsty soldier throats to Wesel, reached some prosperity. So he lends the Domainenpächter Henrich Spickerhoff a capital of 500 Rthlr from Gartrop on a 14 morning big pasture on 1-18-1800. This capital was repaid at which to his widow and his children to 5-18-1804 since he had died in the meantime (archive Düsseldorf). He distributes his assets among his 3 sons in his will drawn up on May 19th, 1802 are) the son Johann Friedrich this under the cattle gate sub. No. 786 situated house with stables and equipment to the Brandtweinbrennen and boiler to 2,800 Rthlr. clevisch;

the house, which one live in schedulers for the son Johann Gerhard, sub, for B). No. 526 with the after-house sub. No. 623 and the Brennerey equipment situated in it. 2,000 Rthlr. clevisch;

C) the son Henrich of the sub. No. 787 under the cattle gate belegene house with his hand work equipment to 1,000 Rthlr. clevisch.

The three sons Friedrich, Johann and Henrich form the branches of the big Weseler branch. Your descendants disperse over Germany, Holland and Denmark.

 

3. The Amsterdam-branch

Gerhard Sardeman learned the carpenter skilled crafts and he had left already his native village just like his brother Johann Wilhelm early. He came to Amsterdam, settled there and got married with Engelie Wiegers. The reason of this emigration isn't quite obvious. Perhaps he was on the peregrination. One didn't take it so exactly with the border crossings in that time and probably his profession as a carpenter opened up possibilities better in the world port Amsterdam for him.

Besides were narrow personal relationships availably between the Niederrhein and the Netherlands from the Spanish time. At that ime many Protestants escaped to the towns at the LowRhine under the persecutions of Carl V.(1500 - 1558) at that time. Under the government of his son Philipp II (1555 - 1598) the number of refugees still increased, esspecially during the last year of the government of his sister Margaretha of Parma.

On 4-10-1576 in Antwerpen within 24 hours the schools were closed, the churches pulled down and gallows were built from the beams (p. Rahlenbeck pag. 131 "Le pais de Cleves devint une nouvelle Belgique”). The city of Mastricht was 1579 conquered of the duke of Parma after a long siege and its Protestant municipality was destroyed under many cruelties. The children of the murdered teacher Peter Eckberth of Lier were taken and brought up by the municipality of Wesel (Weseler church archive Acto Presbyterii of 4-4-1580). Thousands left their habitations and native country already on the arrival of the mercenary troops. A big refugee current flowed into the country of Cleve and the city of Wesel -- this one bore the name "Vesalia hospitalis" already since 1545.

These immigrations haven't remained of course without influence on the Lower Rhine country and his towns. The great transitions took place particularly between Rhine and Maas. These currents are history ladenly and also today distinctive for nature and peculiarity of essential areas of Western Europe certainly. Is also scenic obligedly to the Niederrhein for the Netherlands. Get who enters the Dutch/Belgian bordering area from the Niederrhein the great things in common of the origin and history still frappierend clear.

Gerhard Sardeman has always been in connection with the native country. During a visit with his brother Johann Wilhelm, who lived in Wesel, he fell ill and died there in 1796. in the same year his wife also died in Amsterdam. Gerhard Sardeman has left the following notes about his family:

The 5th Decenber 1738 Gerrit Sardeman was born in the wonderfulness (Heerlichkeit) Gaatrop near Wesel. The 20th Juny 1752 was my wife Engelie born, she died in Amsterdam. The 12th May 1776 have we been married by the concilmen in the city hall and by the reverend priest Domeny Johannes Klap in the Lutheran old church. 1776 June 13th heb ik myn alstaasy by denHerwaarden army Domeny Wilhelm August hingeleveerd (not translatable). This one 17th march 1777 is our auste son Willem born in the morning at 6 a.m. and 45 minutes, baptized by Van Do. Albeste. The 7th Februari 1779 is our daughter Cornelia born at 8 a.m. and 45 minutes, baptized by Do. Nortuit. September 26th, 1781 is our son Jurrijan born in the morning 7 a.m. and 30 minutes, baptized by Do. Ronnlers. The 21st Juny 1783 passed our son Jurrijan away. This one 22nd march 1784 is our son Jan Albertborn in the morning 11 a.m. and 30 minutes, baptized by Do. Tree. The 16th January 1787 is my daughter Johanna born in the morning at 8 a.m., baptized by Do. Sterk. 1st May 1793 is my daughter Maria born at noon at 12 a.m., baptized by Van Do. Scholten.

The early death of the married couple induced the oldest son Wilhelm who was at the death of his parents 19 years old and by profession carpenter, to return to Germany. He settled down in Krefeld and  got married there on 12-17-1816 with Gertrud Loers, who was a mennonite. These Mennonites had her name after the Friesian priest Menno Simons who stuck only by Luther and then became a supporter of the Anabaptists. The Mennonites were spread strongly in Krefeld and exposed to cruel persecutions  in Krefeld. Many of them therefore emigrated to America.

Wilhelm Sardemann died in Krefeld in 1835. Descendants of him are found in Hamburg today certainly, descandants of his brothers and sisters can be found in Holland.

The Dutch branches of the Gerhard Sardeman and the descendants of the in the second half of the 19th Century to the Netherlands immigrated watchmaker Gustav Sardeman having kept the older notation of the name Sardeman with an "n" while the name was partly spelled in Germany already since 1733 with two "nn" (see an old land register of 1733 "Sardemannshof" in the Federal Archives in Düsseldorf).

 

The "Clevische Mark" -- place of origin of the families Sardemann:

(Mark = county)

 

The Sardemanns are from the Low Rhine. The narrower tribe native country was part of the former dukedom Cleve (now KLEVE), on the right side of the Rhine river,  the landscape lain between Rhine river and Lippe river. See historic map at “Bilder”. This country around the confluence of Rhine and Lippe is an old Franconian settlement ground, this is improveed by the finds to Hünxe at the Lippe river, Sterkrade, Rill near Xanten and around castle Kalbeck/Low Rhine.

The Roman Cohorts from Castra vetera (= Xanten) marched here to Haltern, and they built their firm roads from wood thick boards which they called "pontes longi" (= long bridges) through the marshy Lippe lowland.

The residence of the country was Cleve. On the top of the mountains the swan castle (Schwanenburg) looks wide into the country. An impressive emblem of the old Duke town. Legendary place of the swan-knight Lohengrin.  This is the ancestral castle of the dukes of Cleve.

1562 was the last duke of Cleve, Jülich and Berg, born, named Johann Wilhelm. In addition, he was still count of the Mark Ravensberg and Mörs, and gentleman to Ravenstein.

When his father duke Wilhelm died on 6th January 1592, he took the government. He was up to 23 years of life and administrator of the diocese minster rehearses, intended for the spiritual stand at first.

After the death of his older brother Carl Friedrich he stepped from the spiritual stand and 1585 married the princess brought up at the Bavarian manor, Jacobea of Baden. This wedding was a disastrous one into itself and for the country. The already splitted regime became ruggedly parties still fighting more into each other which tried in the country to secure the power for himself in the case of the dying of the childless Johann Wilhelm.

Because of the intrigues of her imperially minded sister-in-law Sybilla Jacobea was accused of the adultery. She tried dressed up in Düsseldorf to escape, was, however, recognized, taken into custody and found in bed dead on 9-3-1597 of her maids.

She was a sister of the duke Johann Wilhelm -- the electorate got Brandenburg claims to the dukedom Cleve because the succession was assured to her according to the marriage pacts of 1572 by Maria Eleonore, duchess of Preussen. These rights changed at her death on her subsidiary Anna, this one was married by Brandenburg with the Elector Johann Sigismund.

Johann Wilhelm of Cleve died childlessly on 3-25-1609. He was, exactly like his father, the last years of life mentally ill. The capitals paid homage, of what the former to the Elector Johann Sigismund of Brandenburg and the count palatine PhiLippep Ludwig of Palatinate new castle for his brother for, the margrave for seriousness and the different one for some months later than heirs of the country on 6-16-1609 Wolfgang Wilhelm employed his son to governors.

A war threatening from this descent still was prevented by contracts on time. The dukedoms were divided up and in the contract Cleve came to Xanten (1614), the county Mark and Ravensberg to Brandenburg and Jülich and Berg to Palatinate new castle.

 

The native village Bühl at the Lippe:

The place Bühl, the origin village of the Sardemanns, is due to the lower stretches of the Lippe near Gartrop, in a distance of Wesel for three to four hours by feet. Already in 1312 Bühl is mentioned documentarily, as the count Engelbert of the mark  gave the knight a tithe from Bule (Bühl =) for Goswin. The place name might hills on the dialectal one or Bühl = hills indicate to the difference of the neighboring town Gahlen (gôle = lowland).

 

The Sardemann-Farm:

The Sardemann farm, also Sardinian manor, which was part of the possession of the knight seat Gartrop there, lay here in the so called Bauerschaft Bühl. The first news about this manor leads into the beginning of the 17th century.

After an old testament of the power Gartrop a son of the house inherited there good in Buel in 1628 Sardeman. The house Gartrop already was the baron Hüchtenbruch located in its hands at that time. Albrecht Georg died out the sex of the Hüchtenbruchs on Gartrop with the baron in 1716. His subsidiary and heiress Isabella was married by Quadt with Ludwig Alexander Rülemann whose son, Wilhelm Albrecht of Quadt-Wickradt, became a gentleman on Gartrop.

In the archives of the house Gartrop this one is mentioned Sardeman's good besides Varnsteghoff, Stenner good, Uhlenbruchs good, Niederhoff, Spieckerhoff, Benninghoff etc., everyone was property of the Gartroper power. Sardemans good churchly was not part, however, of Gartrop (reformed) but to which Hünxe removed approximately an hour (Lutheran). The affiliation to the parish church wasn't entitled to the inhabitant directly but was liable like today, to the individual houses yet.

We hear about the denominational structure from reports which the Hünxer parish priest had to report:

Anabaptist as well as Apostaten weren't (available d.s. fallen to the Roman Catholic church again). The whole municipality was Lutheran, ausser mentioned to the Junker Albrecht of long by Hüchtenbruch and the Junker on Rodelöw, the inheriting chamberlain on Gartrop Freihoff, the brother of the clevischen Secretärs. But himself kept still these calvinistic Junker quiet.

Contrary to different other manors Sardemans good wasn't a hereditary leasehold, but a time lease manor. After the old land register of 1733 (Federal Archives Düsseldorf) the Schatzung 16 Reichsthaler amounted. The Grösse of the manor isn't indicated, is called Wilhelm Albrecht, however, by Quadt and Hüchtenbruch as an owner. A remark, Titulo hereditatis after Avo, means that he has taken the manor of his ancestors.

In the archives of the house Gartrop is given to the size of the manor in 1748:

5 Marseit, 3 Matzent and 14 Ruthen building land. 7 Marseit and

67 1/2 Ruthen Hofweydung, garden, meadows.

(1 Marseit = 400 Ruthen, 1 Matzent = 100 Ruthen, 1 Ruthe = 14 clevische country shoes. After parish priest Sander, Voerde/Ndrrh).

In the mentioned year 8 Thaler and 3 pigs had to be paid to the Gartroper power to lease, the tenant still had to pay ausserdem a Kirchenzehnt to Hünxe.

Up to first half of the 19th century the Sardemanns Hof remained Sardemann in the possession of the male descendants. He then came to the female line. The last tenant was called Heinrich Dickmann. He was from the Dickmannshof in Bühl and was married with Margarethe Sardemann (born Bühl on 6-27-1605, rural branch.)

In 1867 the manor burned down and the estates became anschliessend parcels out. Owner was the baron Moritz Carl of Nagell at that time, the the Hof parents baron Paul David Sigesmund Mauritz of Nagell deceased on 11-21-1828 due to the will of him and his had inherited wife countess Constance Hermine Albertine Marie Jacobe from Quadt.

 

The manor was in Gartrop-Bühl no. 54th properties following to this belonged to Dinslaken according to detail of the land registry nearby today's vicarage:

Municipality of Gartrop-Bühl corridor 3 plot 188/42, 43 of (early plot 43)

Services from Act. 96 of the mother forward roll Gartrop

41 Sardemannshof field 0.28.70 hectares

Sardemannshof pasture 0.07.09 hectares

Sardemannshof pasture 2.31.83 hectares (early plot 43)

The plot 31 still belonged Ausserdem to Wesel according to detail of the land registry to this.

 

The name Sardemann or Sardeman:

The last names were subject to the most surprising cancellations and fluctuations at least till 1650. One didn't carry the father’s name as an unalterable inheritance yet. The style of the name Sardemann has, however, got herself except for today.

The manor name as a source of the name is clear what he, however, means is difficult to say. Sardemann doesn't hang guard man together with Sandermann or with the name also happening.

Hiess Sandermann was a Käter, which lived at the sand mountain and early " to toward sands ". Guard man is the man who had built his house into the garden and was therefore mentioned "in the guards".

The derivation of Sardock, a rough cloth made of half linen and half wool, is possible. Sarte = a woolen blanket. Perhaps a Sardemann was a man, this one such substance webte. The also following version is possible. In the history of the parish Hünxe parish priest Sander lists the Drevenacker into band 1 for century //zehnt// from the beginning of 15. After this an old-established also had to come along " into toward Elsen " "a service with geweer" do his passings ausser with names. However, the root of a word "Sar" means the armor, that is Sardemann, the helmeted or armed man, for the helmet or "Saro" in the Old High German one. Formerly, perhaps the tenant of the Sardemannshofes was also obliged to a service with the weapon to the knight seat Gartrop and the name then arose from this liability.

1857 appeared a book with the title in Antwerp: L " ' inquisition et of La reforme en Belgique " of Charles Rahlenbeck. This book contains names of the Calvinists accounted in November 1566 and 1567 because of her faith and mentions a "Jan Ambroise de Sardes" on page 265 in first job.

The city of Wesel has taken many of the refugees then. This Sardes perhaps has been under it. A derivation of the name to Sardemann is possible. The Sardemannshof also is described as a "Sardinian" manor in old files (archive Gartrop) and others.

One often finds at name formings that "one" was adapted the real name on. (see also archive p. genealogy exercise book 1 Jhrg. The Naue Peter Falkenau becomes a "Falkmans" subsidiary 1939 for page 5 with the subsidiary to Peter) here.

The Sardemanshof is conspicuous that contrary to other manors only 1628 is mentioned documentarily although he didn't take second place in the Grösse to the manors mentioned much earlier. The participation of the Sardemanns in the public life is also provable in the municipality only as of 1641. The reason has to be looked perhaps into this that one "Sardes" outgoing of the 16th Jahrhs. got the manor into lease and the manor name arose from it later.

Come into the clear one over the origin of the name all efforts have led result to no clear, however. Also a connection with the name Schardemann the 1595 appears in the archives of the city of Osnabrück and few later after the 30-year, war disappears again, can't be proved.

From the year 1723 the name Sardemann is on completely to pursue. As Curiosum it must be mentioned, however, that he goes down by marriage into this in the male tribe years while he is continued in the female line at the same time. (see tribe consequence.)

 

Year 1634 -- first documentary mention of the name

The name Sardemann documentarily is behaved in the list of the Zahlpflichtigen to the church government stocks Hünxe in 1634. The passing amounted to 29 bushels of grain fruit. The name is mentioned in the archives of the house Gartrop in 1641 when a Derck Sardemann signs a petition to the Gartroper power.

 

Derck Sardemann whose year of birth at 1610 -- 1615 lies was born in an unhappy time. 1618 provoked a war for political and religious tensions which should bring an unutterable misery over Germany for 30 years.

Deaths of the last duke of Cleve in 1609 sacked this one for Spaniard and Dutchman the clevische country on the left the Rheines shortly after already. In 1614 pulled an army commanded of the Spanish marquis Spinola out of the Netherlands to Wesel, occupied the town and depressed the inhabitants heavily. On the country marked-out routes every traffic had an end, the fields lay fallow and the plague raged frightfully to the towns and villages.

The following statement shows from a chronicle like communication in the Protestant church archives to Wesel how terribly the Spaniards have lived in the unhappy country at this time:

Houses and cloisters, taken and looted of the Spanish between Ruhr and Lippe so. The house hernia, Broich, all spolirt, (=) robbed, the count "versus datam fidem et promissam securitatem" (against given word and security promised) terribly murders and burned. The house Crudenburg, this of Bentheim competent, taken and looted. Also has looted all manors and villages in the district of the Lippe and Ruhr and sonstwie had a great sin with man and woman and done unutterable damage. All agriculture lies, the stables stand emptily since the cattle is robbed. The country marked-out routes are unsafe from around grazing soldiers, not rare also from robbers.

From Wesel and Goch which traveled to the Leipzig fair became merchants between Schermbeck and they nevertheless a protection guard duty of 25 Mann of the Spaniards from Wesel taken along and a letter of safe-conduct of Spinola had but also as her sat with the defense, wounded so, not robbed for holders of her money, 12,000 Thaler, by soldiers who lay in Ruhr place in the fieldworks alone, that where one took her the one, shot, the different one over the head hit in Schermbeck, by the chest, soon died.

So war and Pestilenz created terrible needs and constant fear. In the church game Hünxe 1615 become for the Kirch and lecture Frerichs sold by the Spaniards of house and manor. The crew extorted difficult passings from the inhabitants. The farmers had hardly the daily bread.

For 15 years the Spaniards kept Wesel occupied, to August 19th, 1629 with the help of the prince of Oranien which was in Emmerich with his army at that time, the surprise attack by the count Quadt-Wickradt, turned out well and the Spaniards were sold for the Weseler citizens Peter and Dietrich Möller and her brother-in-law Johann Rohleer.

 

"Germany, woe country

Country of the plagues

All robbers hurrying up plan"

so a verse line read from the 3 ojährigen war because the fights and Schatzungen didn't stop and new taxes and contributions were always imposed on the population.

 

The parish priest Rutgerus Boennecken from the church game Hünxe had to escape onto the fastened castle Crudenburg to save his fief. His note which he has left about this reads:

"Forefather pays Jahn Hugo shyness reindeer thoe Horst for 39 reichsthaler to Schatzung in Anno 1645 ' for the exequutoren 22 forefather for it April 9th this pay 2 reichsth out per exequutione ., otherwise she taken out of the house without what. Nit has the soldiers' sobalt been able to bring bej because Crudenburg must these monies uff ahnfar of this one for my life to salvieren for me uffs go, (save), (claim)."

 

The time after the 30-year war:

After the Westphalian peace in 1648 some areas only have the half or a third, in places only still a tenth of the original population. The flat country had become a desert. The Niederrhein had, however, almost 20 years time which to rebuild this the war had destroyed. Complications which damaged the country on the new one then came.

 

After the death of the King PhiLippep IV. of Spain (gest. Ludwig XIV lifted up 1665). of France claim to Spanish the Netherlands and took hold of large portions of Flanders and Brabant. The war spread to the clevische mark soon, too.

1666 are complained about "very arduous French Kriegsläuffte" and on October 8th, 1672 heisst it, that in the municipality there are many sick persons because of the war riot. The clergymen address an urgent petition to the government in Cleve around exemption of the French Kriegsschatzung in 1673. Because of the danger of war the grain had to be caught up with unripely.

But not only the municipality had but also this one for particular to carry burdens. So Sardeman gets among others also from Buil -- it is still probably Derk Sardeman -- after a receipt from the year 1674 advanced 4 Thaler from church means because of the damages suffered in "Kriegsläfften". (Hünxer church archive)

New Schatzungen were always imposed on the municipalities by the Frenchmen. You threatened to collect the contributions "if necessary with all severities of the war". In a sales act of municipality country heisst it:

"here in this country of Cleve the fraschen (Frenchmen =) has to do huesiret with schatzen and brantschatzen because, so that it have to do the Leutten no longer or beybringen know, so she is so a befelch (order) come from Cleve, that the Leutten verkauffens should of the thought where könten, so that they would like the monies bejbringen."

From the year 1676 from June 23rd a sales act the family history is being interested is received (archive Düsseldorf), during the war the desperate situation describes like this one to the village Bühl. It is this sale the "Doppenkamp" belonging to Bühl's guild, this one would lark around to the old-established ones Horstmann was sold to Benninghoff and Johannes.

The guilds represented our rural co-operative societies of today. The parish priest and two guild champions were in her lead. Unfortunately, nothing is got more than some sales files on Gildeland over the guild.

The Doppenkamp, Benninghoff and Johanne's Horstmann resp. the heirs remained larked around, till he was completely purchased in 1777 of Sybilla Sardemann which by her husband Albert Wilhelm Horstmann law of inheritance had at it called that way after his tenant then, "Derk Dopp", 106 years in the possession of the two buyers.

The name Sardemann is contained in an examination list of the sub-splendor Buel of December 13th in 1678 (Federal Archives Düsseldorf). Unfortunately, the entries have been carried out without detail of the first name all. These examinations were carried out after recruiting of the Clevischen government having been carried out on behalf of the sovereign, the Elector of Brandenburg.

 

The jurisdiction

The manor owners or tenants are always published in the documents taken in front of the district manor in Gartrop (or Hünxe) as manor assessor or jurors. The chairman of the manor was a country marvelous judge. There was the district manor until the erection of the Patrimonialgerichte (sogenannte marvellous things) in the 17th century; and 1646 became the Jurisdiktion via the house Gartrop and the Bauerschaft Bühls and about the church game Gahlen 1650 transfer this one to A. of Hüchtenbroik (Federal Archives Düsseldorf).

Ausserdem still passed the sogenannte Bauergericht into the single Bauerschaften. These Bauergerichte were chosen by the Bauerschaft and consisted of the Bauerrichter, the Bauerschöffen and this making offered services. The position of the Bauerrichters represented today's Schiedsmann.

E.g. a Baurpoen (= penalty) which used to lend himself to one of the stove of the different one because there weren't any matches yet consisted in the disqualification of water and fire. These penalties were valid as long as, till the one in question fitted in with the community obediently again.

 

Johann Sardemann as a juror (1726)

There is a Johann Sardemann manor juror in 1726. In an act of the 30th July 1726 which contains an interim injunction of the married couple Wylich against the baron heaths and whose wife he and Johann Wilhelm Uhlenbruck are named as a juror (archive Düsseldorf).

 

Johann Sigismund Wilhelm Freiherr heaths was a governor of the fortress Lippepstadt and late general Lieutnant of the fortress Wesel. He had one got married into the house Crudenburg and patronage master of the church became Hünxe through this. He seems to have been a very violent gentleman. He tried to solve a dispute with the municipality because of the appointment of a parish priest his way why the municipality at the government in Cleve at the 6.6.1717 folgendermassen complained:

"One began terrible things for parish priest for dry horn, to force us, (there umb = the forced) to take care for the obdruirten dry horn. Some of us, also preacher and need arias, became cörperlich arrestiret and some became, held respec with four marksmen or Käthern like rogues and thieves into detention, thrown into a Diebsthurm. A Gerichtsscheffen Albert Meyer fainted in the Thurm, gebrandt almost became death into this bashful. our Bauerrichter was of his poor, stick old parents, woman and children the at night under terrible, about what likewise with the Blauwen skirts, for blows from a stick with the hair of seven soldiers dragged away and to military services forced for selbige to the begging staff gerahten, others bedröwet for one for a different one one wanted to exert a tight one of many gold guilders ..."

 

The time in which Johann Sardemann lived nevertheless was of increasing prosperity. From the Brandenburgern Friedrich, the successor of the great Elector, had got Preussen, however, in the meantime because 1701 had crowned themselves king of Preussen in king mountain as Friedrich I..

 

Within the years 1744 and 1746 a Gerret signs (Sardemann = Goert also = Gerhard) for a petition because of a new church bell for the church in Hünxe. Either he was a district council member, sogenannter Bauerschöffe, or he belonged to the church representation Hünxe. Around this time, 1746, he is also Gildemeister of Bühl's guild and signs a sales contract of municipality country. In 1749 he gets 7 Thaler from the guild register because by an epidemic the cattle had him died (all archive house Gartrop).

 

The name exchange Horstmann/Sardemann

When the tribe research started after the ascendant, everything went very smoothly. The line pursues himself for liess to to Wesel lovely. After an entry in the church register there the last ancestor should be from Hünxe a.d. Lippe. The entry was also found into the Taufregis-tern of the Hünxer parish. On page 28 Nr.7 hiess it:

Täufling Bühl January 30th, 1735

Alb. Wilhelm Sardemans Kindt Jo. Wilhelm

So the Sardemanns were from the nearby place Bühl. However why was the entry in Hünxe and not in the church registers of the community Gartrop for which the place Bühl also belonged to gemeindlich? Where did the father Albert Wilhelm Sardemann come from? The first question was settled fast. The church in Hünxe is the older and belonged to the Lutheran direction did most confess for which old-established from Bühl.  The Hünxer church registers start with only 1723 since the previous ones were destroyed because of the chaos of war.

So it ought to have let find the marriage entry of the father at least still since the son was christened Johann Wilhelm in January 1735? The church register failed however here and nothing could be found also at the parish in Gartrop. A marriage entry of January 24th, 1723 found himself well in Hünxe where a Gerhard Sardemann married an Anna Katharina Benninghoff. Should this be a brother of Albert Wilhelm? But where and when and the ancestor had married whom now?

The research was deadlocked and seemed arrived on the dead point because no connection produce itself about this one either in Bühl on the Benninghof of sedentary and numerous other Sardemanns liess. A sales nude of the Horstmannskamp of 1-6-1785 appeared at researches in the Federal Archives Düsseldorf one day there and it stood literally there:

 

"The brothers and sisters Sardemans from Bühl, children of the deceased married couple appeared Sardeman and Sybilla Sardeman to Albert Wilhelm Horstman mentioned as namely:

1. the citizen Johann Wilhelm Sardeman from Wesel

2. the carpenter Gerhard Sardeman from Amsterdam

3. the married couple Heinrich Kuhleman and Margarethe Sardemans"

 

Yes, this was he, the forefather !! Named Horstmann and he had accepted the manor name at the one marriage on the Sardemann-Farm. Now he let himself also in the Hünxer church register the day of the marriage ceremony, and lock Hermann from the file of the first names of his father Johann and his brother.

 

The tenants accepted Meier right for also this one after old Lipppe's -- one got married -- always for the manor name. Where as unusual feature the farmers personally were also at the lower Lippe, (cf. Schröder), always free in German legal history for Ger. legal history this custom has been usual. A prescription of the years 1850-1855 bound the inhabitants, her right, i.e. the father name first to lead.

 

 

The family Horstmann

The married couple Albert Wilhelm Horstmann and Sybilla Sardemann is the tribe parents of all Sardemanns of today. This tightly stands that Horstmann must hot real. For this reason the ancestors Horstmann seem worth mentioning here.

1666 is a Jan Horstmann church champion. The parish priest then, Boennecken, puts the first presbytery in Hünxe and 1667 appoints to it as the oldest Jan Horstmann Und Bernt tho Benninghoff. In 1679 Johann dies of Horstmann and bequeaths 25 Thaler to the relief fund. Ullenbruck jetzo which is one Wessel (Wilhelm =) Horstmann gives the arms 10 Thaler, in 1676. He signs a document (settlement between parish priest and curate) besides others on 5-14-1685. He is Provisor of the poor man government stocks 1692. He donates a brass candlestick to the church to Hünxe in 1703 which has the following inscription:

"Wilhelm Uhlenbruck, jetzo Horstman to Buel and Anna Horstmann, married couple in marriage stand lived, give Katharina Ullenbruck 43 year and his sister for this to the Gedaechtnis with Derich Schomperman lived on for 50 year. Anno 1703."

This Wilhelm Ullenbruck has one therefore got married into the Horstmannshof in 1660 and then also accepted the manor name. So the manor has come to the female line Anna Horstmann/Ullenbruck after the marriage 1660.

 

The Horstmanns-Farm and the Horstmannskamp

The manors and estates in Bühl were almost without exception in the property of the Gartroper power except for the church possession and the common land. Only few manors or also estates imposed, this one because of war contributions had to be sold, had changed into the property of some farmers the.

So it is also to understand that the farmer sons didn't remain unconditional on the lease manors but in other manors one got married. In addition, there wasn't an Anerbenrecht in the clevischen mark but the manor dividing was predominant.

It was assumed in the beginning of the research that the Horstmannshof and the Horstmannskamp are the very same manor. It got clear only in the further course that it was two different manors.

On 9-22-1679 Johann bought Horstmann of Bühl's guild for the "new plot of land", dler also is described as such in the old land register of 1733. The name "the new Horstmannskamp" appears only in later documents for this. It have passed such late two manors of the same name. The one who was sold to 1837 of the Gartroper power of oatmeal plot of land sitting on it still to this one today is Horstmannshof which has given the families the name and is led in the land register still under this name now, too the older.

 

The families Benninghoff, Sardemann, Horstmann

On 1-24-1723 get married in Hünxe Gerhard Sardeman and Anna Katharina Benninghoff who reaches the possession of the Benninghofes after the death of her only unwedded brother in 1730. The name Sardemann is going down in the male line now since as of now Gerhard was called Benninghoff, (first known one marriage of a Sardemann on the Benninghof), the second was carried out in 1805.

InHünxe also get married ' his sister Sybilla Sardeman and Albert Wilhelm Horstman, some months later on 6-1-1723 which is called late Sardeman (for continuation for the name in the female line. Tribe parents couple of all Sardemanns of today).

For the public notice the bride had to give the parish priest a Schnupftuch and the groom 20 -30 Stüber. Such a Schnupftuch was well still an attribute of the woman at that time. The men still treated the handkerchief very unkindly in the general one. You schneuzten himself with the fingers. About the Standesunterschiede in the use of the handkerchief these aren't, the German dress regulations of the year 1583 reports, worth worth about one and a half Thaler that Bräutigmae and persons of a noble sex may use only sniffing cloths. Those of the common citizen should cost only half a Thaler and those of the servants half a guilder.

 

Living on the Sardemann-farm until time after the 7-year war:

At the marriage of Sybilla Sardemann in 1723 the major part father Johann, the father Jan Goert, probable still lived the wife and the brother Henrich on the Sardemannshof. Whether the the latter was unmarried or as his brother Gerhard named bill of exchange has carried one out isn't found out.

From year to year, the farm took place the live on in the circulation which was determined by the church calendar. The field, the meadows and the stables kept man busy completely.

Estates of the manor also worked on the Sardemanns for Ausser for the other properties. For a piece of church land which they had leased for 12 years they had to hand in to the parish priest in Hünxe 12 Malter barley. On the delivery the custom insisted that the Abliefernde was fed by the parish priest.

So the tenant Schüring also had to give a pig and a pound of pepper to Drevenack to rent for the sogenannte pep hooves. At the delivery the tenant was accompanied of his dog and both fed in the vicarage. If the dog looked back when going away once again now, then this was a reference of his dissatisfaction with the hospitality and the Abliefernde then was allowed to take a handful pepper with home from the pepper bag again.

From the year 1723 the church game was struck of a dying greatly for almost 77 years. Within these years the births at 57 stayed behind the deaths. The Ruhr, smallpox and nerve fevers appeared scarlet and veins as an epidemic primarily, besides this.

The new parish priest Trippler wrote, that " at the look back at the year 1723 the high fever has been rife for a long time, since often in a week 7 and well often more corpses about often also 2 corpse from one grounds confessed, lives ". The major part father dies of Johann Sardeman to 4-22-1738 aged at this time of the epidemics at the age of 93 years.

It ever was for the husband the Sybilla Sardemann, Albert Wilhelm Horstmann and his brother Hermann in the old land register of the Bauerschaft Bühl half as an owner of the new Horstmannskamp typed in whom her pre-parents had purchased hereditarily on 9-22-1679 of the Bühlschen guild. The half of the Doppenkamps as an heir was, entitled to them Ausserdem would lark around this one also had acquired upon Bühl's guild Benninghoff together on 7-16-1676 for her ancestor Johannes Horstmann together with after the entry in the land register.

Already to his life times Albert Wilhelm protected himself a right of preemption at the new Horstmannskamp. To this end he had himself from the old-established Henrich opt Vengels 70 Rthlr. lent, to pay a part of his inheritance out to his brother Hermann. Since the receipt of 6-3-1750 for the repayment had been lost, the son of the creditor posthumously published put; Bernd op Vengels on 9-28-1777 a duplicate receipt for this fund (archive Düsseldorf).

After the death of his father-in-law Jan Goert Sardemann who dies on 1-10-1758 at the age of 82 years Albert Wilhelm then enters the lease of the Sardemannshofes.

Friedrich the Great against the Austrian empress Maria Theresia had started with a war which dragged on for 7 years toward the end of August 1756. The Frenchmen also participated in it and Ausser the preussischen lain at the Rhine occupied areas the Swedes and Russians.

Albert Wilhelm is a manor juror around this time and Henrich Sardemann signs a document among others with his brother-in-law on 2-12-1758, the municipality transmits a piece of land into what to Johann Bernd Benninghoff and his wife Margarethe Ullenbruck. Into this heisst it and others:

"there we for the payment this one in behuf of the imperial Königl. also königl. at present saddened and miserable times Fourage written out French armies under April 6th, 1757 monies and first loans unsern share with 280 Rthlr 27. 1/3. still demanded at the 25th Juny of said year here most nearly furthermore cannot set because these monies from be suitable, take got forced, got put by the two year Fouragirungen having been carried out behind each other on this and war burden still due besides this also ausser stand, however, now for means, such pay ... " etc. (archive Düsseldorf).

In a colored order abwechselnden billetings depressed the farmers for the himself heavily. Have built her in a list conscientiously, what have the soldiers stolen together everything.  The prices which authorize an end on the value of a Thalers in the time then are interesting in it. So you billed:

1 stolen sheep of 2 Reichsthaler.

1 pig of 5 Reichsthaler.

1 goose 1 Reichtshaler.

1 cattle of 18 Reichsthaler.

1 four-year-old bull of 22 Reichsthaler.

1 bag of potato of 3 Reichsthaler and 20 Stüber.

 

So the potato price was considerably above the meat prices. About the completion of the 7-year war you get in record of the parish priest still following the church archives in Hünxe ausserdem:

1763 on 15 Febr. the peace has been closed by Bohemia and Hungarians in Saxony between unserm King Friedrich of the great ones and the queen Theresia on the castle Hubertusburg like also between the Churfürsten of Saxony since the Frenchmen leave this country soon and have moved to France again. The gratitude and peace festival is held to the 13th Martz 1763 on this soon.

 

 

 

 

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